Water softeners are offered in fiberglass tank / top mounted valve AND steel tank / diaphragm valve nest configurations. Water softeners are used to remove hardness (limestone) from the water utilizing a man-made cation resin and salt to regenerate the resin. Hardness clogs boilers, plumbing systems and water heaters; leaves a white residue on fixtures; reduces the effectiveness of cleaning products. Capacities, salt usage and regeneration schedules can be easily calculated by testing for the inlet water hardness and determining the amount of water consumed.
Reverse Osmosis is an effective mechanical water treatment process for reducing 95% to 99% of the dissolved mineral salts, organics and particles by forcing the water, under pressure, through a semi-permeable membrane. TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) is the typical use for reverse osmosis along with pre-treatment for Deionization.
The Recovery rate (% feed water converted to product water) is normally in the 50% to 75% range. Low-energy membranes are used which allows for smaller high-pressure pumps, thus reducing energy use. Pre-treatment is usually required to remove turbidity (multi-layer filter), chlorine (carbon filter) and hardness (water softener) should these contaminants be in the water supply. Post treatment systems along with atmospheric storage and repressurization systems are also available.
Deionizers are offered in fiberglass tank / plastic diaphragm valve nest AND steel tank / plastic diaphragm valve nest configurations. Deionizers utilize a cation resin, regenerated with acid and an anion resin, regenerated with caustic to remove all of the ions, thus removing most of the TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) in the water.
A Two-Bed deionizer has the cation and anion resins in separate tanks, which will provide high purity water to 1 Megohm. A Mixed-Bed deionizer has the cation and anion resins in the same tank, which will provide very high-purity water to 10 Megohm. Pretreatment is typically required and is determined by the regeneration configuration required. Waste neutralization systems are also available.